Psychological Research and Scientific Method This has always been one of my favourite topics, both to study and to teach. We begin with a look at biological rhythms in general, looking at research into the different types. We then consider what happens when these rhythms get disrupted, most likely through jet lag or shift work.
While sleep in the perspective of those experiencing it may seem more or less the same throughout the night, this couldn't be further from the truth. Sleep is not one homogeneous state, but rather a progression through various states with extremely unique characteristics. In total, there are five stages of sleep that can be readily distinguished from each other.
In other words, sleep is not just sleep!
Life in slumber is a bit more nuanced than that, so let's take out the fine-toothed comb and examine it a little closer. Additionally, non-REM sleep can be subdivided into 4 sub-stages, distinguishable by levels of EEG a measurement for the bioelectric activity of the brain visible during polysomnographic recordings.
Each successive stage of non-REM sleep is indicative of a deeper sleep, with stage 1 as the lightest and stage 4 as the deepest. The sleep science community has more recently combined non-REM stages 3 and 4 into one stage, stage 3.
So a basic picture we get of sleep looks like this: See the more complex graph below But beyond this simplified view, there is much more that can be said about both the characteristics of these two types of sleep and the way we move between their distinct stages of sleep throughout the night.
We'll start by examining the characteristics of REM sleep before moving on to more closely examine the stages of non-REM sleep. This connection between REM sleep and dreaming was first made in by our own Dr.
Dementas well as his fellow student Eugene Aserinsky and their teacher Nathaniel The relationship between sleep patterns psychology essay. The stages of sleep were first described in by Alfred Lee Loomis, an American also known for significant work in developing the radar.
Loomis and his coworkers used EEG recordings to classify 5 different levels of sleep that they referred to using the letters A to E.
When Dement and Kleitman discovered that REM sleep was a distinct state init led them to reclassify the stages of sleep, separating REM from the other four stages of non-REM and giving us the model we use today.
In REM sleep, the sleeper's eyes move in conjunction with his or her vision in the dream world. This is known as the scanning hypothesis. The rapid eye movements for which REM sleep takes its name are a result of the brain trying to scan the events in the dream world.
In other words, if one looks left and right during a dream, the sleeper's actual eyes will follow the dream gaze and move left and right under his or her eyelids. This is known as the scanning hypothesis, and you can read about some very cool studies that were used to prove it on the REM sleep page here.
In many ways these eye movements during REM sleep are entirely indistinguishible from the eye movements that occur during wakefulness.
In both cases they are characterized by darting movements and binocularly synchronicity, meaning that both eyes move together. There are also, however, features of eye movements during REM sleep that are not real similar at all to that of wakefulness.
Namely, during REM sleep there is a lack of eye centering and fixation, which are essential to waking sight, but a presence of occasional slow, drifting movements that never occur during wakefulness. In order to conjure a dream, as you might imagine, the brain has to be highly active.
In waking life the brain perceives and reacts to the world around a person. During dreaming the brain is not only perceiving and reacting, but also creating the environment. Thus, it makes sense that mental activity is very high during REM sleep. Brain activity during REM sleep is very comparable to activity during wakefulness, as evidenced in these EEG recordings showing very fast, quick waves in both states.
ASP actually happens to most people at least once during their lifetime, and for those who experience it frequently it can be quite alarming. Another characteristic of REM sleep is paralysis. REM paralysis is achieved by the REM atonia system, which creates a blockage of final nerve pathways, essentially inhibiting directions to react given by the brain from reaching the muscles.
However, not every muscle group is paralyzed. The diaphragm functions to let us breathe, smooth muscle groups such as the urinary sphincter work, as do the eye muscles, which has given researchers much to study in REM sleep.
A wonderful simplification of this information, and a great way to think about REM sleep, is below: D's Sleep Book Says In fact, non-REM is characterized by continuous low-level muscle movements in the neck and jaw muscles.
The sleeper can also more commonly roll around and shift positions during non-REM, but movement is still typically very infrequent compared to wakefulness, as you might cunningly have imagined ;- This is to say nothing of the intriguing occurrences of such events as sleepwalking and sleep terrors though!
Throughout the night, your body progresses in and out of the stages of non-REM sleep, and each stage has its own very unique characteristics. Stage 1 Stage 1 sleep is a transition period from wakefulness to the other 3 stages of non-REM sleep.Not all sleep problems are due directly or entirely to stress.
Certain hormonal changes that come with menopause or even natural aging can alter sleep patterns. Certain medications can have an effect on sleep.
Caffeine, alcohol and other things we consume can affect sleep as well. Even certain diseases and disorders can make sleep difficult (like disorders that bring chronic pain, which certainly can interfere . Relationship Between Insomnia And Depression Psychology Essay. Print Reference this The flow of the bidirectional relationship between insomnia and depression will also be presented to determine which one of these two is a risk factor.
This decline in terms of serotonin level negatively influences the sleep patterns since the serotonin. To examine the relationship between superior intellectual functioning and physiological patterns and events during sleep, male children (8–12 years old) of superior (x̄ IQ: ) and average (x̄ IQ: ) intelligence were recorded for five consecutive nights using standard electrographic measures.
Jun 30, · Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. Updated on September 16, Virginia Kearney. What is the relationship between religion and mental health? Can religious counseling, prayer or other religious practices improve or treat mental illness? Can wearing fitness trackers that monitor our sleep help us to Reviews: 4.
Prior research has demonstrated a relationship between a student’s amount of nightly sleep and their grades. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep on weekdays and weekends, subjective feelings of tiredness, and academic performance among Health Care Specialist students at Ft.
Sam Houston, TX. In this review, we present evidence from human and animal studies to evaluate the hypothesis that sleep and circadian rhythms have direct impacts on energy metabolism, and represent important mechanisms underlying the major health epidemics of obesity and diabetes.