The Iliad and Odyssey:
Once set, gods and men abide it, neither truly able nor willing to contest it. How fate is set is unknown, but it is told by the Fates and by Zeus through sending omens to seers such as Calchas.
And put away in your heart this other thing that I tell you. Each accepts the outcome of his life, yet, no-one knows if the gods can alter fate.
The first instance of this doubt occurs in Book XVI. Seeing Patroclus about to kill Sarpedonhis mortal son, Zeus says: Majesty, son of Kronos, what sort of thing have you spoken?
Do you wish to bring back a man who is mortal, one long since doomed by his destiny, from ill-sounding death and release him? Do it, then; but not all the rest of us gods shall approve you.
This motif recurs when he considers sparing Hector, whom he loves and respects. This time, it is Athene who challenges him: Father of the shining bolt, dark misted, what is this you said? But come, let us ourselves get him away from death, for fear the son of Kronos may be angered if now Achilleus kills this man.
It is destined that he shall be the survivor, that the generation of Dardanos shall not die Whether or not the gods can alter fate, they do abide it, despite its countering their human allegiances; thus, the mysterious origin of fate is a power beyond the gods.
Fate implies the primeval, tripartite division of the world that Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades effected in deposing their father, Cronusfor its dominion. Zeus took the Air and the Sky, Poseidon the Waters, and Hades the Underworldthe land of the dead—yet they share dominion of the Earth.
Despite the earthly powers of the Olympic gods, only the Three Fates set the destiny of Man. Yet, Achilles must choose only one of the two rewards, either nostos or kleos. Either, if I stay here and fight beside the city of the Trojans, my return home is gone, but my glory shall be everlasting; but if I return home to the beloved land of my fathers, the excellence of my glory is gone, but there will be a long life left for me, and my end in death will not come to me quickly.
Kleos is often given visible representation by the prizes won in battle. When Agamemnon takes Briseis from Achilles, he takes away a portion of the kleos he had earned. The stars conjure profound images of the place of a single man, no matter how heroic, in the perspective of the entire cosmos. Pride[ edit ] Pride drives the plot of the Iliad.
The Greeks gather on the plain of Troy to wrest Helen from the Trojans. Though the majority of the Trojans would gladly return Helen to the Greeks, they defer to the pride of their prince, Alexandros, also known as Paris. Due to this slight, Achilles refuses to fight and asks his mother, Thetis, to make sure that Zeus causes the Greeks to suffer on the battlefield until Agamemnon comes to realize the harm he has done to Achilles.
When in Book 9 his friends urge him to return, offering him loot and his girl, Briseis, he refuses, stuck in his vengeful pride. From epic start to epic finish, pride drives the plot. The epic takes as its thesis the anger of Achilles and the destruction it brings. Anger disturbs the distance between human beings and the gods.
Uncontrolled anger destroys orderly social relationships and upsets the balance of correct actions necessary to keep the gods away from human beings.
Hybris forces Paris to fight against Menelaus. The "Wrath of Achilles". King Agamemnon dishonours Chryses, the Trojan priest of Apollo, by refusing with a threat the restitution of his daughter, Chryseis—despite the proffered ransom of "gifts beyond count".
Moreover, in that meeting, Achilles accuses Agamemnon of being "greediest for gain of all men". But here is my threat to you.Nov 26, · Best Answer: The important thing to remember about The Iliad and the Odyssey are that they are great works, and deserve the classic name that gets attached to all great works of literature.
Historians, such as Victor Davis Hanson, have come to understand clearly the relationship between the ancient Greeks (and Persians) and torosgazete.com: Resolved. The early Greeks insisted that there was a single individual named Homer, to whom they ascribed the Iliad, the Odyssey, and several minor works called the Homeric Hymns.
However, around the third century B.C., the so-called . The Iliad and Odyssey: Historical Background. Who, What, Where: These epic stories are about the Mycenaean or Bronze Age, ancient Greeks, who flourished from about BC.
This is roughly about the time Moses led the Israelites from Egypt through the time David ruled a united Jewish nation; by most accounts, Moses led the Jews out of . Jun 26, · The Odyssey (and the Iliad) have inspired and affected all sorts of literature since, from the drama of the 5th Century BC, to the literature of today.
People have been trying to spot parallels between A Song of Ice and Fire/Game of Thrones and the Homeric epics — and there’s no doubt Martin was inspired by them, whether . CLASSICAL LITERATURE QUOTES REALM OF HADES IN THE ILIAD Heracles, Cerberus and Hecate in the Underworld, Apulian red-figure volute krater C4th B.C., Staatliche Antikensammlungen In Homer's Iliad the dead descend into a murky, subterranean realm ruled by the gods Haides and Persephone.
It is called dôma Aidao "the house (domain) of Haides" or domoi Aidao "the dwelling-places of Haides.". Homer (/ ˈ h oʊ m ər /; Greek: Ὅμηρος [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms.