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Brookhart To use multiple measures appropriately, start by understanding their purposes. We wouldn't think of making most of our important life decisions on the basis of one measure alone. For example, people who are considering buying a house look at the house's age, condition, location, style, features, and construction, as well as the price of nearby homes.
Doctors diagnosing an illness use multiple assessments: The question is, Why do education policymakers and practitioners sometimes opt to make important decisions based on only one indicator? Many people think of multiple measures in the plain English sense of the term, to mean using more than one score to make judgments about groups such as classes, schools, and school districts as well as individual students.
The principle seems simple enough. Other relevant information should be taken into account if it will enhance the overall validity of the decision.
Such assessments shall involve multiple up-to-date measures of student academic achievement, including measures that assess higher-order thinking skills and understanding. Seems clear, but consider this.
The NCLB guidelines count anything that measures higher-order thinking as "multiple measures. To make good decisions about how to use multiple measures, both policymakers and practitioners need a clear understanding of what they mean by the term.
Such an understanding begins with knowing what these measures are supposed to accomplish. The Rationale for Multiple Measures There are two important reasons to use multiple measures for decisions about education.
The first is that multiple measures enhance construct validity. A construct is the attribute you are trying to measure. In education, this is often achievement in a specific domain, but constructs also can be psychological traits, attitudes, and so on.
Construct validity is the degree to which any score conveys meaningful information about the attribute it measures. We can't really get a full picture of Johnny's reading comprehension from one test score.
The set of items or tasks on any one measure can't adequately represent the depth and breadth of complex concepts like reading comprehension or math problem-solving.
Several measures, taken together, are likely to more adequately sample the things students should know and be able to do in the achievement domain being measured.
Using more than one measure also helps us recognize performance variations caused by format, timing, and other logistical aspects of testing.
The second reason for using multiple measures is that they enhance decision validity. For any particular decision, there are usually several relevant types of information, each of which could have one or more measures.
Johnny's reading comprehension is not the only important thing to know before we decide whether to place him in special education. We might also consider his achievement in other school subjects; his history with other interventions for example, a reading support program ; his affective responses to school; and his parents' observations of his work at home.
To decide whether a school is doing a good job, we need to consider several different achievement measures reading, mathematics, and so on ; as well as information about resources personnel, financial, policy ; processes curriculum, instruction, school climate ; and other school outcomes safety, graduation rate, student and parent satisfaction.
In practice, there are many ways to define and apply the concept of multiple measures. Two questions are at issue.
First, what counts as a "measure"? Second, how are the multiple measures combined? Here we'll discuss three different ways of counting what a measure is and three different ways of combining measures to make instructional decisions.It is the way we exhibit or present our message on paper.
Even if our ideas, words, and sentences are vivid, precise, and well constructed, the writing will not be inviting to read unless it follows the guidelines of Presentation. Traits and the CCSS; Research; Contact. Mark Workman For questions about our 6+1 Traits Writing work. General Writing Help.
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