In the process of making this weapon, there will be no much difficulty involved and the process is not complex and not expensive. In making a biological weapons there is no need for large facilities.
At this first meeting of the Section and before, with however laudable intentions, we set about instructing our colleagues in other fields, it will be proper to consider a problem fundamental to our own.
How in the first place do we detect these relationships between sickness, injury and conditions of work? How do we determine what are physical, chemical and psychological hazards of occupation, and in particular those that are rare and not easily recognized?
There are, of course, instances in which we can reasonably answer these questions from the general body of medical knowledge. A particular, and perhaps extreme, physical environment cannot fail to be harmful; a particular chemical is known to be toxic to man and therefore suspect on the factory floor.
Sometimes, alternatively, we may be able to consider what might a particular environment do to man, and then see whether such consequences are indeed to be found. But more often than not we have no such guidance, no such means of proceeding; more often than not we are dependent upon our observation and enumeration of defined events for which we then seek antecedents.
In other words we see that the event B is associated with the environmental feature A, that, to take a specific example, some form of respiratory illness is associated with a dust in the environment.
In what circumstances can we pass from this observed association to a verdict of causation? Upon what basis should Problem solution essay on smoking proceed to do so? But with the aims of occupational, and almost synonymous preventive, medicine in mind the decisive question is where the frequency of the undesirable event B will be influenced by a change in the environmental feature A.
The whole chain may have to be unraveled or a few links may suffice. It will depend upon circumstances. Disregarding then any such problem in semantics we have this situation.
Our observations reveal an association between two variables, perfectly clear-cut and beyond what we would care to attribute to the play of chance. What aspects of that association should we especially consider before deciding that the most likely interpretation of it is causation?
First upon my list I would put the strength of the association. To take a very old example, by comparing the occupations of patients with scrotal cancer with the occupations of patients presenting with other diseases, Percival Pott could reach a correct conclusion because of the enormous increase of scrotal cancer in the chimney sweeps.
On the other hand the death rate from coronary thrombosis in smokers is no more than twice, possibly less, the death rate in non-smokers.
Though there is good evidence to support causation it is surely much easier in this case to think of some feature of life that may go hand-in-hand with smoking — features that might conceivably be the real underlying cause or, at the least, an important contributor, whether it be lack of exercise, nature of diet or other factors.
But to explain the pronounced excess of cancer of the lung in any other environmental terms requires some feature of life so intimately linked with cigarette smoking and with the amount of smoking that such a feature should be easily detectable. Certainly in this situation I would reject the argument sometimes advanced that what matters is the absolute difference between the death rates of our various groups and not the ratio of one to the other.
That depends upon what we want to know.
If we want to know how many extra deaths from cancer of the lung will take place through smoking i. But it does not follow here, or in more specifically occupational problems, that this best measure of the effect upon mortality is also the best measure in relation to etiology. In this respect the ratios of 8, 20 and 32 to 1 are far more informative.
It does not, of course, follow that the differences revealed by ratios are of any practical importance. Maybe they are, maybe they are not; but that is another point altogether. The death rate that he recorded in the customs supplied with the grossly polluted water of the Southwark and Vauxhall Company was in truth quite low — 71 deaths in each 10, houses.
What stands out vividly is the fact that the small rate is 14 times the figure of 5 deaths per 10, houses supplied with the sewage free water of the Lambeth Company. In thus putting emphasis upon the strength of an association we must, nevertheless, look at the obverse of the coin.
We must not be too ready to dismiss a cause and effect hypothesis merely on the grounds that the observed association appears to be slight.
There are many occasions in medicine when this is in truth so. Relatively few persons harboring the meningococcus fall sick of the meningococcal meningitis.Top Recommended Argumentative Essay Topics Simple Argumentative Essay Topics.
The complexity of the US educational system; The problem of obesity among American population.
This Article Includes. Finding a Good Topic.
Problem Solution Teen Smoking Essay 1. Teen Smoking Madison Robinson In recent years the amount of teens that smoke has sky rocketed. Sep 06, · This article is about a problem solution essay, where the main point is to give a solution. A cause essay is probably what you are writing. In a cause essay, your main point is to explain the cause behind something (and sometimes the effects).Reviews: When you need an example written by a student, check out our vast collection of free student models. Scroll through the list, or search for a mode of writing such as “explanatory” or “persuasive.
Deciding on the Best Solution. How to Write an Excellent Essay. Effective Writing Tips for Problem Solution Essays. Smoking Marijuana is something that many people assume to be a safe and risk-free recreational activity.
The drug, which has countless street names (such as Pot, Herb, Green, Ganja, Chronic, etc.), has gained a reputation for helping to facilitate good times and relaxation.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Here's my full essay for the 'positive or negative development' question that we've been looking at over the last few weeks.
In some countries, many more people are choosing to live alone nowadays than in the past. Do you think this is a positive or negative development? In recent years it has become far more normal for people to live alone, . Other Writing. Cause and Effect: In this type of writing, you have to give the cause of a problem or situation and to describe the results.
Problem and Solution: intro, one paragraph for the problems, one for the solutions, conclusion). Compare and Contrast: some links and materials.