Overview[ edit ] Fig. Wineglass model for IMRaD structure. The above scheme schematically shows how to line up the information in IMRaD writing. It has two characteristics, first one is "top-bottom symmetric shape", second one is "change of width", that means "the top is wide and it narrows towards the middle, and then widens again as it goes down toward the bottom".
But for areas such as health, patents can also restrict access to medicines for those who cannot afford them. In addition, large corporations from developed countries are patenting so many resources from developing countries that it makes it difficult for those nations to be able to produce medicines for themselves.
However, there are some provisions in the TRIPS agreement to allow generics, but that is only when there is an emergency and the products are not used for commercial use and even this clause is under attack from the US and pharmaceutical companies.
Former World Bank Chief Economist and Nobel Prize winner for economics, Joseph Stiglitz explained in an editorial in the prestigious British Medical Journal that Intellectual property differs from other property—restricting its use is inefficient as it costs nothing for another person to use it.
Intellectual property rights, however, enable one person or company to have exclusive control of the use of a particular piece of knowledge, thereby creating monopoly power. Monopolies distort the economy. Restricting the use of medical knowledge not only affects economic efficiency, but also life itself.
We tolerate such restrictions in the belief that they might spur innovation, balancing costs against benefits. But the costs of restrictions can outweigh the benefits. It is hard to see how the patent issued by the US government for the healing properties of turmeric, which had been known for hundreds of years, stimulated research.
Had the patent been enforced in India, poor people who wanted to use this compound would have had to pay royalties to the United States. These rights were intended to reduce access to generic medicines and they succeeded. As generic medicines cost a fraction of their brand name counterparts, billions could no longer afford the drugs they needed.
But what have they received in return? Drug companies spend more on advertising and marketing than on research, more on research on lifestyle drugs than on life saving drugs, and almost nothing on diseases that affect developing countries only.
This is not surprising. Poor people cannot afford drugs, and drug companies make investments that yield the highest returns. Notice that impedes growth, and development and is intended to. It is also an example of inequality being structured into law, also summarized here: Western countries, led by the United States, have fought strenuously on the international front to protect those patents—in effect, placing a greater value on intellectual property, in the name of spurring innovation and saving more lives in the future, than on saving lives currently at risk.
WTO patent rules allow 20 years of exclusive rights to make the drugs.Nov 04, · Beginning in , the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors began to set the rules for how authors, editors, peer reviewers, advertisers, and publishers ought to behave.
The peer review process began some years ago in France and in England,  revolutionizing science by creating a culture of peer criticism and self-criticism. Interview with Dr.
Charlotte Haug on the growing number of article retractions attributable to peer-review fraud. () Download In August , the . Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues ().Medical imaging seeks to reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, as well as to diagnose and .
Clinical Trial Registration: A Statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Catherine De Angelis, M.D., M.P.H. If you're a student and have ever had to write Reports, Essays or Theses, you will have had to reference what you have used in your report.
Writing a paper about writing a paper can also seem futile because guidelines have to be so broad as to be vague. Practical advice about writing a research report is necessarily different from advice about writing a systematic review or a case report.