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Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. The high court is scheduled to hear arguments on Fisher V. University of Texas at Austin and are tasked with ruling on whether the university's consideration of race in admissions is constitutional.
Affirmative action policies focus on improving opportunities for groups of people, like women and minorities, who have been historically excluded in United States' society. The initial emphasis was on education and employment.
Kennedy was the first president to use the term in an Executive Order. Supporters argue that affirmative action is necessary to ensure racial and gender diversity in education and employment. Critics state that it is unfair and causes reverse discrimination.
Racial quotas are considered unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.
California and Florida have similar programs. Read More Timeline selected cases: Board of Education, rules that the "separate but equal" doctrine violates the Constitution. This ensures that federal contractors hire people regardless of race, creed, color or national origin. Bakke, a notable reverse discrimination case, the Supreme Court rules that colleges cannot use racial quotas because it violates the Equal Protection Clause.
As one factor for admission, however, race can be used. October 14, - Gratz v. December 3, - A similar case, Grutter v. Bollinger, is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan.
Barbara Grutter, denied admission to the University of Michigan Law School, claims that other applicants, with lower test scores and grades, were given an unfair advantage due to race. December - The judge in the Gratz v.
Bollinger case rules that the University of Michigan's undergraduate admissions policy does not violate the standards set by the Supreme Court. March - The judge in the Grutter v. Bollinger case rules the University of Michigan Law School's admissions policy is unconstitutional.
January 17, - The administration of President George W.
Bush files a friend-of-the-court brief with the Supreme Court, opposing the University of Michigan's affirmative action program. June 23, - The Supreme Court rules on Grutter v. Bollinger that the University of Michigan Law School may give preferential treatment to minorities during the admissions process.
The Court upholds the law school policy by a vote of five to four. June 23, - In Gratz v. Bollinger, the undergraduate policy in which a point system gave specific "weight" to minority applicants is overturned six to three.
December 22, - The Supreme Court rules that race can be a factor in universities' admission programs but it cannot be an overriding factor.
This decision affects the Grutter and Gratz cases. November 7, - The Michigan electorate strikes down affirmative action by approving a proposition barring affirmative action in public education, employment, or contracting. January 31, - After the Supreme Court sends the case back to district court; the case is dismissed.
She argues that the university should not use race as a factor in admission policies that favor African-American and Hispanic applicants over whites and Asian-Americans.
November 15, - The US Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals throws out Michigan's ban on affirmative action in college admissions and public hiring, declaring it unconstitutional.
Affirmative action has been the subject of legal battles on the basis that it is reverse discrimination against caucasians, but in most challenges to affirmative action the programs have been upheld. affirmative action. Definition of affirmative action: Employee hiring and promotion policy that takes a proactive approach to removing prejudices against recruiting and promoting minorities, and other under-represented groups of the society. Use 'affirmative action' in a Sentence. i need help with full sentence outline on affirmative action. asked by sarah on April 22, ; eng. I have to write a full sentence outline and can not figure out how to do it. asked by Sharon on November 4, ; com how do I go about a full sentence outline for the effects of tanning salons.
June 24, - The Supreme Court sends the University of Texas case back to the lower court for further review without ruling. October 15, - The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments in a case concerning Michigan's law on affirmative action.
April 22, - In a six to two ruling, the Supreme Court upholds Michigan's ban of using racial criteria in college admissions. July 15, - The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upholds the use of race by the University of Texas as a factor in undergraduate admissions to promote diversity on campus.
The vote is two to one. December 9, - The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments in the University of Texas case regarding race as a factor in admissions policies.Oct 09, · The case is the latest in a long line of affirmative action cases going back to , when the Supreme Court backed Heman Sweatt's effort to be enrolled in Texas' flagship Austin campus.
Oct 14, · The decision to emphasize diversity over fairness is one that affirmative-action proponents made long before Wednesday, and it is a big reason they find themselves in such a vulnerable position today.
Resources for contractors including a Affirmative Action Plan template. Resources for contractors including a Affirmative Action Plan template. Download and complete the Workforce Certificate of Compliance (for packets designed for Minnesota employers) or at the U.S. Census Bureau web site (for all available data).
Affirmative action. The Painful Truth About Affirmative Action Why racial preferences in college admissions hurt minority students -- and shroud the education system in dishonesty. Richard Sander Stuart Taylor Jr.
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Nov 12, · Check out CNN's Affirmative Action Fast Facts for some background information about affirmative action as well as a few notable Supreme Court court cases.