Early Involvement Ho Chi Minh's resistance to colonial powers in Indochina led to the formation of the Marxist liberation movement known as the Viet Minh. While Americans were girding to fight the Civil War inthe French were beginning a century-long imperial involvement in Indochina. The lands now known as Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia comprised Indochina.
Just as a rat must be drawn from his burrow to be eradicated, an enemy soldier, burrowed in a building, must also be pulled from his hiding place to be eliminated. Normally, he will not come out without a fight.
The attacker must go in and dig him out. This day fight for the cultural center of Vietnam was the largest U.
Americans have not conducted an urban battle since that has exceeded the scale of fighting in Hue. Viewed in this context, Hue demonstrates the difficulty of shaping the battlespace at the operational level in response to a surprise attack in a built-up area. The city is actually two distinct towns separated by the Perfume River.
The Citadel, built on the northern bank, covers roughly 8 square kilometers and once served as the residence for Annamese emperors. Located approximately kilometers south of the demilitarized zone DMZHue was the predominant cultural, spiritual, and educational center of Vietnam.
The Vietnamese are an exceptionally homogeneous people. Their culture has been shaped by decades of Chinese oppression, French colonization, and briefly, Japanese occupation. Predominantly a rural, agrarian country, the French succeeded in establishing a major commercial center in the southern part of Vietnam centered on Saigon.
Although there is a strong Buddhist and Confucian heritage among the Vietnamese, French colonization also implanted a thriving Catholic tradition. Tet, or the lunar new year, is the largest annual Vietnamese holiday, and Hue, as the imperial city, hosts a prominent festival.
By late January, several thousand visitors had arrived in Hue to participate in the festivities. This area was so large that LtGen Cushman divided the division and established direct operational control over both halves.
BGen LaHue located his headquarters in Phu Bai, where he had the Ist and 5th Marine Regiments each with just two battalions available to accomplish his mission. The Marines of TF X-Ray focused on gaining and maintaining the support of the South Vietnamese residing in villages throughout the AO by posting combined action platoons CAPs to live in those villages as an ever-present security force.
Specifically, the United States feared that losing Vietnam to communism would lead to the loss of all Southeast Asia. Moreover, this loss would threaten Japan and South Korea while undermining U. The strategic objective for the United States in Vietnam, therefore, was to contain the spread of communism in Southeast Asia.
This translated into an operational military objective of eliminating the effective North Vietnamese Communist insurgency in the Republic of Vietnam.
Notably, GEN Westmoreland and LtGen Cushman appear to have disagreed on the appropriate military strategy for reaching that operational objective. By the end ofthe highly touted strategic bombing campaign had not produced the results promised. He intended to accomplish this by placing the NVA forces in a position where superior U.
He identified the South Vietnamese support of the Communists as the critical vulnerability to attack. Accordingly, he focused on small unit pacification efforts in the villages, believing that only the people of South Vietnam themselves could truly expel the Communists and eliminate the threat in the long term.
The celebrated CAP program was a product of this approach. The friction between the two would also complicate U. Now, against the Americans and the South Vietnamese, the objective became a single Vietnamese Government exclusively under their control.
As part of a Maoist revolutionary war strategy, Ho employed rural insurgency and ambushes, complemented by an aggressive propaganda effort, to build a Communist infrastructure among the South Vietnamese populace.
Byhe felt the time had arrived to escalate his efforts to the conventional level. He believed that such an offensive would spark a simultaneous uprising among the peasantry of South Vietnam against its government.
Ho knew quite well, however, that a conventional offensive was an all-or-nothing proposition with regard to fighting the Americans toe to toe.Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in March 17 – a group of antiwar citizens marched to the Pentagon to protest American involvement in Vietnam.
March 25 Clarence. "Social Movement Participation: Clergy and the Anti-Vietnam War Movement." Sociological Analysis Vol. American forces from Vietnam, and the consequent collapse of South Vietnam to communism. The U.S. strategy pursued in Vietnam between to “contain” communism above the 17th parallel was flawed.
This paper analysis the primary factors in President Johnson decision to expand U.S. involvement in Vietnam with the introduction of ground forces. The Columbia University protests of were one among the various student demonstrations that occurred around the globe in that year.
The Columbia protests erupted over the spring of that year after students discovered links between the university and the institutional apparatus supporting the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War, as well as their concern over an allegedly. The Paris Peace Accords of , intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War, ended direct U.S.
military involvement and temporarily /5(6). U.S. Involvement in the Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive, In late January, , during the lunar new year (or “Tet”) holiday, North Vietnamese and communist Viet Cong forces launched a coordinated attack against a number of targets in South Vietnam.
MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES TITLE: A FAILURE IN STRATEGY: involvement in Vietnam with the introduction of ground forces. Second, this paper provides an analysis of American forces from Vietnam, and the consequent collapse of South Vietnam to communism.
The U.S. strategy pursued in Vietnam between to.