A Preliminary Appraisal of their Structure and Transformation. Society and World View of the Birhor: Prakriti, The Integral Vision, p.
The order and dignity of such a state was intended to provide a notable contrast with the unreasonable polity of Christian Europe, divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches, which More then described in Book I, written in England in The description of Utopia is put in the mouth of a mysterious traveler, Raphael Hythloday, in support of his argument that communism is the only cure against egoism in private and public life.
More, in the dialoguespeaks in favour of mitigation of evil rather than cure, human nature being fallible. Utopias are far older than their name. The legend of Atlantis inspired many utopian mythsbut explorations in the 15th century permitted more realistic settings, and More himself associated Utopia with Amerigo Vespucci.
Puritanism produced many literary utopias, both religious and secularnotably The Law of Freedom…in which Gerrard Winstanley advocated the principles of the Diggers. The Common-Wealth of Oceana by James Harrington argued for the distribution of land as the condition of popular independence.
Consequently, Bulwer-Lyttonin The Coming Raceinvented an essence that eliminated economics altogether, and William Morris demonstrated his contempt for economics in News from Nowhere Two influential utopias, however, had an economic basis: Wellsin A Modern Utopiareturned to speculation.
Satirical and dystopian works Many utopias are satires that ridicule existent conditions rather than offering practical solutions for them. In the 20th century, when the possibility of a planned society became too imminenta number of bitterly anti-utopian, or dystopian, novels appeared.
The Story of Utopias by Lewis Mumford is an excellent survey of the subject up to the date of its publication. Courtesy of The National Portrait Gallery, London Utopian communities Concurrent with the literature, there have also been many attempts by religious groups and political reformers to establish utopian communities, especially in the Americas.
In the two centuries between when some Dutch Mennonites established the first such communitarian colony in what is now LewesDelaware andsome settlements were begun in North America.
The first to outlast the lifetime of its founder was the Ephrata Community established in Pennsylvania in by some German Pietists. Some of them pursued celibacy. Other communal religious sects still flourish; among the largest are the Hutteriteschiefly in the United States and Canada but having colonies also in Paraguay and England.
One of the first secular communities was New Harmonyfounded in when the British manufacturer Robert Owen purchased Harmony, Indiana, from the Rappites.
It was a cooperative rather than communist society. Although it foundered, it sponsored the first kindergartenthe first trade schoolthe first free libraryand the first community-supported public school in the United States.
The ideas of the French social reformer Charles Fourier had a strong influence upon American reformers in the s, particularly upon the leaders of Brook Farm in Massachusetts. Between andabout 28 Fourierist colonies were established in the United States. The Icariansfollowers of Cabet, established ill-fated communities in Illinois Nauvooformerly settled by MormonsMissouri, Iowaand California.
Library of Congress, Washington, D. Noyes said that Oneida was the continuation of Brook Farm without its mistakes. Children remained with their mothers until they could walk but were then placed in a common nursery. After the American Civil War the enthusiasm for secular utopian experiments waned.
The creation of utopian religious communities continued into the 20th century, but they too were usually short-lived. The religious colonies, in almost all instances, were established and maintained by a single powerful personality who was believed by his disciples to have a singular gift of prophecy or wisdom.
Most of these colonies flourished during the lifetime of the original leader and then declined slowly after his death. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Utopia examples show common characteristics, including the following: An elaborate description of the geographic landscape, often given by guides native to the region.
The narrator or protagonist of the story is an outsider to the utopian society. He is very skeptical of the society’s modern political, social, economic, or ethical problems.
Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes from the meeting on by Ron Johnston.
Often, utopias are self-contained societies removed from the rest of the world, because it is hard to create a perfect society on anything except a small scale.
This is the case in the classic novel titled Utopia by Sir Thomas More. In the novel, a fictional island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean contains a . BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. In the development of the history of science, the histories of the individual scientific disciplines have played an enormously significant role.
Utopia may be ideal, but in the very structure of Utopia is the understanding that the ideal can never be attained and instead can only be used as a measuring stick. The description of the cities introduces a general fact of Utopian life: homogeneity.