Kathleen Bogart Communicating Without the Face: Communicating without the face: Holistic perception of emotions of people with facial paralysis. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 36 4
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The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of a rehabilitative training, the Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment CPTaimed at improving communicative-pragmatic abilities and the related cognitive components, on the cerebral modifications of a single case patient diagnosed with schizophrenia.
The patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI sessions, before and after the treatment. In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation ALFF index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain.
The patient improved his communicative performance in almost all tests. Posttraining stronger ALFF signal emerged in the superior, inferior, and medial frontal gyri, as well as the superior temporal gyri. Introduction Communicative-pragmatic ability is a typically impaired feature in schizophrenia [ 1 ].
Communicative-pragmatic refers to the ability to use language and nonverbal expressive means, such as gestures and facial expressions, and to convey meaning in a given context [ 2 ].
Despite their almost intact syntactic ability [ 3 ], patients with schizophrenia show difficulties in a more complex use of language, that is, pragmatic [ 4 ]. They show poor performance in comprehending different kinds of pragmatic phenomena, such as indirect speech acts [ 5 ], deceit [ 6 ], irony [ 7 ], and metaphoric expression [ 8 ], and in recognizing and recovering communicative failures [ 9 ].
Moreover, schizophrenia implies deficits in the management of conversation [ 10 ], narrative impairments [ 11 ], and poor performance in nonverbal expressiveness [ 12 ] and in emotional prosody see [ 13 ].
A broad assessment provided using the Assessment Battery for Communication ABaCo [ 14 — 16 ] has recently given an articulated description of communicative-pragmatic deficit in patients with schizophrenia [ 17 ]. Results of the study showed that patients have difficulties in using linguistic, extralinguistic, and paralinguistic expressive modalities both in the comprehension and in the production of various types of pragmatic tasks, as direct and indirect speech acts, irony and deceit.
According to some authors e. However, there is evidence in the literature to suggest that ToM is not able, alone, to fully explain the communicative deficits of these patients [ 9 ]. Pragmatic ability is something which is articulated and requires a broad interplay of processes that seem to involve several prefrontal, frontal, and temporal networks, even though the identification of specific neural substrates underlying this competence is quite complicated.
More recently, Akimoto et al. The authors identified the right anterior superior temporal gyrus as being associated with the representation of social conceptual knowledge, while the medial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior inferior temporal gyrus could be involved in the understanding of context.
The authors found metaphor-specific activation in the head of the caudate and sarcasm-specific activation in the left amygdala.
Furthermore, both metaphor and sarcasm activated the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex. The authors concluded that these areas are jointly involved in monitoring the coherence of literal meaning of the utterance and in mentalizing within social contexts in order to understand the pragmatic-communicative meanings of an utterance.
Data in the literature show that cognitive and communicative impairments may restrict the possibilities for functional recovery and can persist also after the psychosis subsides e. Despite this evidence, little attention has been given to cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.
Some authors have developed remediation programs to improve social functioning [ 28 ] and to affect recognition [ 29 ], awareness, motivation and social competencies [ 30 ], metacognition [ 31 ], and theory of mind [ 32 ]. We recently designed the Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment CPTan integrated treatment specifically focused on the remediation of communicative-pragmatic abilities and related cognitive components.
It offers the participants the opportunity to train their own ability to manage communicative interchanges using different communicative means, that is, language and gestures and appropriate paralinguistic cues, and adhering to the social and conversational settings where the communicative interaction takes place.
Additionally, the CPT focuses on components such as awareness, theory of mind, and executive functions, which play a role [ 1133 ] in structuring efficient communication.
The training has already been used with TBI individuals [ 3435 ] and in a pilot study with patients with schizophrenia [ 36 ], revealing high rates of effectiveness in improving their communicative performance.
A training program is aimed at restructuring cerebral functioning. To measure brain changes in response to practice, functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI has proven to be an excellent tool.According to Bandura, the extent to which we feel we’re able to meet a challenge or pursue a task to a favorable outcome is our level of A.
facial feedback hypothesis. B.
theory of universal affect programming. C. emotional similarity theory. D. facial-affect program.
In the Binet IQ test, an IQ score is equal to MA divided by CA. 2) 3. such as when studying for a test or writing a paper.
headaches. Two other names for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) before it was named PTSD (boxed text on page 20) 18 Unit 1 Mind. Abstract The following research information gives insight into how social media plays a part in society today.
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2. facial feedback hypothesis. are people good at detecting lies? most of us achieve only about 55% accuracy, and few exceed 70% torosgazete.comity test; paper and pencil test.
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